Risk factors for symptomatic and asymptomatic norovirus infection in the community


Phillips, Gemma 2010. Risk factors for symptomatic and asymptomatic norovirus infection in the community. Epidemiology & Infection. 139 (11), pp. 1676-1686.
AuthorsPhillips, Gemma

The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for norovirus-associated infectious
intestinal disease (IID) and asymptomatic norovirus infection. Individuals with IID and healthy
controls were recruited in a community-based study in England (1993–1996). This is the first
risk-factor study to use viral load measurements, generated by real-time RT–PCR, to identify
cases of norovirus-associated IID and asymptomatic infections. Using multivariable logistic
regression the main risk factor identified for norovirus-associated IID was contact with a person
with IID symptoms. Infectious contacts accounted for 54% of norovirus cases in young children
and 39% of norovirus cases in older children and adults. For young children, contacts outside
the household presented the highest risk ; for older children and adults, the highest risk was
associated with child contacts inside the household. Foreign travel and consumption of shellfish
increased the risk of norovirus-associated IID. Lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with
a decreased risk of both norovirus-associated IID and asymptomatic infection. No risk factors
were identified for asymptomatic norovirus infection.

Keywordsgastrointestinal infections; infectious disease epidemiology
JournalEpidemiology & Infection
Journal citation139 (11), pp. 1676-1686
Publisher's version
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10552/1592
Publication dates
PrintDec 2010
Publication process dates
Deposited09 May 2012
Additional information

Phillips, G., Tam, C.C., Rodrigues, L.C. and Lopman, B. (2010), 'Risk factors for symptomatic and asymptomatic norovirus infection in the community', Epidemiology & Infection, 139(11), pp. 1676-1686, doi:10.1017/S0950268810002839.

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