Power Control and Cooperative Sensing in Cognitive Radio
Etim, I. 2019. Power Control and Cooperative Sensing in Cognitive Radio. PhD Thesis University of East London School of Architecture, Computing and Engineering
The traditional ways of spectrum management is inefficient as large portions of useable spectrum is left idle most periods of the day hence the call for more dynamic spectrum management techniques. Cognitive Radio (CR) is considered a viable means to vastly improve the efficiency of spectrum since it allows unlicensed users access to licenced spectrum as long as the quality of service is not downgraded.
This research investigates the major problems associated with designing CRs. An in-depth analysis shows that the two major problems that hinders the successful design of CR systems are that of spectrum sensing (How the device detects the Primary User (PU)) and Power Control (which focuses on the level of transmit power of CR devices so as not to induce interference to PUs).
To solve the problem of power control in this research, we consider a single cell scenario where N CR terminals are operating in a network with a Cognitive base station (CBS) together with one PU along with its Primary Base station (PBS). In the scenario, CR devices will generally seek to improve quality of service by increasing it’s transmit power. This increase introduces interference to the PU. To mitigate this, the CR devices are modelled as players of a non-cooperative game where offending devices are penalised till a Nash equilibrium level is achieved. At this point, the players can no longer influence the state of the game no matter the strategy they chose to play. The work is extended to cover CR internet of things devices by exploiting the adequate path loss exponent for the operational environment. The power control algorithm is compared with two other known power control algorithms and it outperforms them in average power, average SNR and rate of convergence.
Spectrum sensing in CRs has been shown in literature to improve when done cooperatively rather than individually. To this end, this research focuses on cooperative sensing which allows the radios to make decision on their channel state based on the combine results of individual radios. The channel is modelled as a frame- by frame structure of equal length using the slotted aloha access contention technique. Each frame has a fixed length and is made up of sensing, prediction and transmission periods. It is seen observed that longer sensing periods results in better sensing results but considerable lower throughput. The scenario researched involves a CR network with K CRs and M sub-channels. It is assumed that the conditions of all sub-channels are equal, and each CR randomly chooses any one to sense and the throughput is measured. The interference caused to the PU are measured by collisions in the system. This are of two types: (1) Collisions with PUs due to missed detections and (2) collisions with other CRs due to access contention. Whenever there is a collision, the packet is withheld by the system and transmission is stopped. The throughput is a measure of successful packet transmissions. The derived algorithm improved the throughput by detecting the optimal sensing period. Using the K-of-M fusion decision rule, the sensing algorithm guarantees that optimal throughput can be achieved when 50% of the cognitive radio correctly detects the state of the spectrum.
Cognitive radio throughput will be of very grave importance. Especially in spectrums like TVWSs and radar systems. A throughput model with power control is presented. The aim is to improve the throughput in interweave scenarios.
|Publisher||University of East London|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI)||doi:10.15123/uel.86xy6|
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|Deposited||02 Aug 2019|
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