Epilepsy update: diagnosis, classification and management


Harris, L. and Angus-Leppan, H. 2023. Epilepsy update: diagnosis, classification and management. Medicine . 51 (8), pp. 545-551. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2023.05.011
AuthorsHarris, L. and Angus-Leppan, H.

Careful clinical evaluation differentiates epileptic seizures from syncope (vasovagal or cardiogenic), dissociative seizures (non-epileptic attack disorder) and other rarer paroxysmal events. The initial diagnosis of epilepsy is incorrect in 20%–30% of patients. Investigations can include blood tests, electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms and neuro-imaging. Patients should be informed and counselled about the diagnosis. Anti-seizure medications (ASMs) are the first-line treatment for epilepsy, the choice depending on the epilepsy syndrome, seizure type, patient and their co-morbidities. Surgical options are available for refractory epilepsy. Status epilepticus is a medical emergency and all clinicians should be aware of the treatment algorithm. This update additionally explores autoimmune-related epilepsy, developments in ASMs, including cannabinoids, and automated systems for seizure detection.

Journal citation51 (8), pp. 545-551
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mpmed.2023.05.011
Publication dates
Online29 Jun 2023
PrintAug 2023
Publication process dates
Deposited01 Nov 2023
Copyright holder© 2023, The Author
Permalink -


  • 57
    total views
  • 0
    total downloads
  • 4
    views this month
  • 0
    downloads this month

Export as