Indoor environmental conditions of selected shopping malls in Nigeria: A comparative study of microclimatic conditions, noise levels, and microbial burdens

Article


Omeokachie, D. O., Laniyan, T. A., Olawade, D. B., Abayomi-Agbaje, O., Esan, D. T. and Ana, G. R. E. E. 2024. Indoor environmental conditions of selected shopping malls in Nigeria: A comparative study of microclimatic conditions, noise levels, and microbial burdens. Science of the Total Environment. 906 (Art. 167620). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.167620
AuthorsOmeokachie, D. O., Laniyan, T. A., Olawade, D. B., Abayomi-Agbaje, O., Esan, D. T. and Ana, G. R. E. E.
Abstract

The activities of people and equipment used within shopping malls are major factors that contribute to air pollution and increased sound levels, thereby affecting indoor environmental quality and the well-being of mall operators. This study assessed indoor environmental quality through microbial characterization and measurement of environmental conditions present in selected shopping malls. Investigations were conducted at three shopping malls in Ibadan selected through convenience sampling technique. Environmental parameters such as noise level, relative humidity, temperature, PM₂.₅ levels, total volatile organic compound (TVOC) levels, microbial characterization, and quantity were determined. Microclimatic parameters (temperature and relative humidity) were measured using a 4-in-1 Precision Gold N09AQ multi-tester. Culturable airborne microbes were collected using the settle plate technique. PM₂.₅ and TVOC levels were measured using a Thermo Scientific MIE pDR-1500 PM monitor and sf200-TVOC meter respectively. Two bacteria species and five fungi species were isolated across the malls. The noise levels ranged from 61.27 to 81.20 dB. The mean temperatures (highest mean of 33.44 ± 1.42 °C), PM₂.₅ (highest mean of 114.06 ± 25.64 μg/m³), and TVOC (highest mean of 55.21 ± 8.28 ppm) concentrations were higher than the permissible limits stipulated by the WHO guidelines and NESREA standard limits across all the selected malls. A positive correlation was found to exist between particulate matter and TVOC (r = 0.174, p = 0.004). The total bacteria count was generally high with the highest mean of 1965.33 ± 368.56 CFU/m³, while the total fungi count was generally low with the highest mean of 579.82 ± 51.55 CFU/m³. Bacillus spp. and Candida spp. were found to the consistent from all sample points across the three malls. The bacteria isolated are Gram-positive bacteria associated with human skin which suggests a high rate of indoor pollution from humans. In conclusion, this research has demonstrated the necessity to monitor noise levels and indoor air quality in malls. Also, there is need for government policies to improve indoor air quality which must be enforced and regulated, especially within shopping malls.

JournalScience of the Total Environment
Journal citation906 (Art. 167620)
ISSN0048-9697
Year2024
PublisherElsevier
Publisher's version
License
File Access Level
Anyone
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.167620
Publication dates
Online10 Oct 2023
Print01 Jan 2024
Publication process dates
Accepted04 Oct 2023
Deposited02 Feb 2024
Copyright holder© 2023, The Authors
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