The United States of America: Counterterrorism pre-9/11

Book chapter


Winter, A. 2018. The United States of America: Counterterrorism pre-9/11. in: Silke, Andrew (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism Abingdon, UK Routledge. pp. 615-634
AuthorsWinter, A.
EditorsSilke, Andrew
Abstract

Since the attacks of 9/11, political, public, media and academic focus on terrorism and counter-terrorism has proliferated. According to Crenshaw (2004, p. 82), ‘[t]he attacks of September 11 propelled terrorism from obscurity to prominence in the wider field of international relations and foreign and security policy,’ adding that ‘[s]cholars who had previously ignored terrorism now acknowledged it as a major national security concern’. According to Silke (2008, p. 47), prior to 9/11, the study of terrorism was peripheral in academia, but ‘[s]ince the terrorist attacks of 9/11, interest in – and funding for – terrorism related research has increased enormously’. Yet, he argues that there has been an over-emphasis on al-Qaeda and a lack of historical research (Silke, 2009). In fact, when 9/11 occurred it became difficult for many to remember a time when it was someone other than a Muslim perpetrator. In addition to this, much literature, media attention and counter-terrorism since 9/11 has focused on international terrorism and foreign actors, sources and threats, as opposed to domestic ones. The events of 9/11 not only served to determine the terms of terrorism and counter-terrorism, but also overwrote, if not erased, the collective and institutional memory of pre-9/11 terrorism. According to Singh (2003, p. 52), 9/11 ‘heralded a dangerous and unprecedented chapter in the “American experiment”. 9/11 represented the end of what remained of America’s post-1991 innocence about the severity of global threats’. Former Director of the CIA R. James Woolsey (2002, p. v) argued that ‘[i]f the world did not change on September 11, 2001, at least most people’s perception of it did’.

KeywordsTerrorism; Counter-Terrorism; United States of America
Book titleRoutledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism
Page range615-634
Year2018
PublisherRoutledge
Publication dates
Online03 Sep 2018
Print06 Sep 2018
Publication process dates
Deposited06 Sep 2018
Accepted14 Jul 2016
Accepted14 Jul 2016
Place of publicationAbingdon, UK
ISBN9781315744636
9781138819085
Web address (URL)https://www.routledge.com/9781315744636
Additional information

This is an Accepted Manuscript of a book chapter published by Routledge in Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism on 03/09/2018, available online: https://www.routledge.com/9781315744636

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Accepted author manuscript

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