Relapse to smoking during unaided cessation: clinical, cognitive, and motivational predictors

Article


Powell, Jane H, Dawkins, L., West, Robert, Powell, John F and Pickering, Alan 2010. Relapse to smoking during unaided cessation: clinical, cognitive, and motivational predictors. Psychopharmacology. 212 (4), pp. 537-549.
AuthorsPowell, Jane H, Dawkins, L., West, Robert, Powell, John F and Pickering, Alan
Abstract

Rationale: Neurobiological models of addiction suggest that abnormalities of brain reward
circuitry distort salience attribution and inhibitory control processes, which in turn contribute
to high relapse rates.
Objectives: To determine whether impairments of salience attribution and inhibitory control
predict relapse in a pharmacologically unaided attempt at smoking cessation.
Methods: 141 smokers were assessed on indices of nicotine consumption / dependence
(e.g. the FTND, cigarettes per day, salivary cotinine), and three trait impulsivity measures.
After overnight abstinence they completed experimental tests of cue reactivity, attentional
bias to smoking cues, response to financial reward, motor impulsiveness, and response
inhibition (antisaccades). They then started a quit attempt with follow-up after 7 days, 1
month, and 3 months; abstinence was verified via salivary cotinine levels ≤ 20ng/ml.
Results: Relapse rates at each point were 52.5%, 64% and 76.3%. The strongest
predictor was pre-cessation salivary cotinine; other smoking / dependence indices did not
explain additional outcome variance and neither did trait impulsivity. All experimental
indices except responsivity to financial reward significantly predicted one week outcome.
Salivary cotinine, attentional bias to smoking cues and antisaccade errors explained unique
as well as shared variance. At one and three months, salivary cotinine, motor
impulsiveness and cue reactivity were all individually predictive; the effects of salivary
cotinine and motor impulsiveness were additive.
Conclusions: These data provide some support for the involvement of abnormal cognitive
and motivational processes in sustaining smoking dependence and suggest that they might
be a focus of interventions, especially in the early stages of cessation.

Keywordswithdrawal symptoms; smoking; relapse; prediction
JournalPsychopharmacology
Journal citation212 (4), pp. 537-549
Year2010
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY-ND
Web address (URL)http://hdl.handle.net/10552/1569
Publication dates
PrintDec 2010
Publication process dates
Deposited24 Apr 2012
Additional information

Citation:
Powell, JH, Dawkins, L, Pickering, A, West, R and Powell, JF. (2012) ‘Relapse to smoking during unaided cessation: Clinical, cognitive, and motivational predictors’ Psychopharmacology, 212(4), pp. 537-549, doi: 10.1007/s00213-010-1975-8.

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