Psychological Processes Underlying the Impact of Gender-Related Discrimination on Psychological Distress in Transgender and Gender Nonconforming People

Article


Lloyd, J., Chalklin, V. and Bond, F. W. 2019. Psychological Processes Underlying the Impact of Gender-Related Discrimination on Psychological Distress in Transgender and Gender Nonconforming People. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 66 (5), p. 550–563. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000371
AuthorsLloyd, J., Chalklin, V. and Bond, F. W.
Abstract

In this study we combined understanding from the gender minority stress and resilience (GMSR) model (Testa, Habarth, Peta, Balsam, & Bockting, 2015) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999, 2012) to test a theoretically integrated and expansive account of the development of psychological distress in transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people. Specifically, we constructed a parallel multiple mediation model in which we examined the role of psychological processes deriving from the GMSR model (i.e., internalized transphobia and identity nondisclosure) and ACT (i.e., psychological inflexibility) in the relationship between gender-related discrimination and psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress). We based this model upon data from a 2-wave longitudinal panel design in which 358 TGNC people living in England responded to a battery of measures on 2 occasions, 12 months apart (herein, Time 1 and Time 2). Initial tests of model fit and temporal invariance indicated that our proposed measurement model offered an excellent fit to the data and demonstrated equivalence of measurement across the two study timepoints. Autoregressive cross-lagged manifest path analysis indicated that while our hypothesized full structural model offered an excellent fit to the data, psychological inflexibility alone mediated the relationships between gender-related discrimination and depression, anxiety, and stress. Model comparison analysis confirmed the redundancy of internalized transphobia and identity nondisclosure as mediators and ruled out alternative patterns of causality. We discuss theoretical, empirical, and practical implications for the field of TGNC mental health.

KeywordsTransgender and gender nonconforming people; psychological distress; gender minority stressors; psychological inflexibility; longitudinal panel design
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Journal citation66 (5), p. 550–563
ISSN0022-0167
Year2019
PublisherAmerican Psychological Association
Accepted author manuscript
License
File Access Level
Anyone
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000371
Publication dates
Print01 Oct 2019
Publication process dates
Accepted10 Jun 2019
Deposited02 Feb 2022
Copyright holder© 2019 American Psychological Association
Additional information

This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal. The final article is available, upon publication, at: https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000371

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