Using the interaural time difference and cross-correlation to localise short-term complex noises

Conference poster


Wall, J., McGinnity, Martin and Maguire, Liam 2011. Using the interaural time difference and cross-correlation to localise short-term complex noises. Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science (AICS). Derry, UK 31 Aug - 02 Sep 2011 University of Ulster, Intelligent Systems Research Centre.
AuthorsWall, J., McGinnity, Martin and Maguire, Liam
TypeConference poster
Abstract

The mammalian binaural cue of interaural time difference (ITD) and
cross-correlation have long been used to determine the point of origin of a sound source. The ITD can be defined as the different points in time at which a sound from a single location arrives at each individual ear [1]. From this time difference, the brain can calculate the angle of the sound source in relation to the head [2]. Cross-correlation compares the similarity of each channel of a
binaural waveform producing the time lag or offset required for both channels to be in phase with one another. This offset corresponds to the maximum value produced by the cross-correlation function and can be used to determine the ITD and thus the azimuthal angle θ of the original sound source. However, in
indoor environments, cross-correlation has been known to have problems with both sound reflections and reverberations. Additionally, cross-correlation has difficulties with localising short-term complex noises when they occur during a longer duration waveform, i.e. in the presence of background noise. The crosscorrelation algorithm processes the entire waveform and the short-term complex noise can be ignored. This paper presents a technique using thresholding which enables higher-localisation abilities for short-term complex sounds in the midst of background noise. To determine the success of this thresholding technique,
twenty-five sounds were recorded in a dynamic and echoic environment. The twenty-five sounds consist of hand-claps, finger-clicks and speech. The proposed technique was compared to the regular cross-correlation function for the same waveforms, and an average of the azimuthal angles determined for each individual sample. The sound localisation ability for all twenty-five sound
samples is as follows: average of the sampled angles using cross-correlation: 44%; cross-correlation technique with thresholding: 84%. From these results, it is clear that this proposed technique is very successful for the localisation of short-term complex sounds in the midst of background noise and in a dynamic and echoic indoor environment.

KeywordsSound Localisation; Interaural Time Difference; Cross-Correlation
Year2011
ConferenceArtificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science (AICS)
PublisherUniversity of Ulster, Intelligent Systems Research Centre
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY-NC-ND
Publication dates
Print2011
Publication process dates
Deposited09 Jun 2016
Web address (URL)http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.592.7969&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Additional information

Abstract published in Proceedings of The 22nd Irish Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science (2011), p.375, ISSN 2041-6407 Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.592.7969&am...

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