Towards a More Representative Definition of Cyber Security

Article


Schatz, Daniel, Bashroush, R. and Wall, J. 2017. Towards a More Representative Definition of Cyber Security. Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law. 12 (2), pp. 53-74.
AuthorsSchatz, Daniel, Bashroush, R. and Wall, J.
Abstract

In recent years, ‘Cyber Security’ has emerged as a widely-used term with increased adoption by practitioners and politicians alike. However, as with many fashionable jargon, there seems to be very little understanding of what the term really entails. Although this is may not be an issue when the term is used in an informal context, it can potentially cause considerable problems in context of organizational strategy, business objectives, or international agreements. In this work, we study the existing literature to identify the main definitions provided for the term ‘Cyber Security’ by authoritative sources. We then conduct various lexical and semantic analysis techniques in an attempt to better understand the scope and context of these definitions, along with their relevance. Finally, based on the analysis conducted, we propose a new improved definition that we then demonstrate to be a more representative definition using the same lexical and semantic analysis techniques.

Keywordscyber security; information security; national cyber policy; systematic review
JournalJournal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law
Journal citation12 (2), pp. 53-74
ISSN1558-7215
Year2017
PublisherAssociation of Digital Forensics, Security and Law
Publisher's version
License
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.15394/jdfsl.2017.1476
Web address (URL)https://doi.org/10.15394/jdfsl.2017.1476
Publication dates
Print30 Jun 2017
Publication process dates
Deposited14 Dec 2018
Accepted01 Jun 2017
Accepted01 Jun 2017
Copyright information© 2017 ADFSL
Permalink -

https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/84v3v

  • 12
    total views
  • 39
    total downloads
  • 4
    views this month
  • 11
    downloads this month

Related outputs

Towards Efficient and Scalable Data-Intensive Content Delivery: State-of-the-Art, Issues and Challenges
Kilanioti, Irene, Fernández-Montes, Alejandro, Fernández-Cerero, Damián, Karageorgos, Anthony, Mettouris, Christos, Nejkovic, Valentina, Albanis, Nikolas, Bashroush, R. and Papadopoulos, George A. 2019. Towards Efficient and Scalable Data-Intensive Content Delivery: State-of-the-Art, Issues and Challenges. in: Kołodziej, Joanna and González-Vélez, Horacio (ed.) High-Performance Modelling and Simulation for Big Data Applications: Selected Results of the COST Action IC1406 cHiPSet Springer, Cham.
Representing Variability in Software Architecture: A Systematic Literature Review
Haider, U., Woods, E. and Bashroush, R. 2018. Representing Variability in Software Architecture: A Systematic Literature Review. International Journal of Software Engineering and Computer Systems. 4 (2), pp. 19-37.
The ALI Architecture Description Language
Haider, U., McGregor, John D. and Bashroush, R. 2018. The ALI Architecture Description Language. ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes. 43 (4), pp. 52-52.
gUML: Reasoning about Energy at Design Time by Extending UML Deployment Diagrams with Data Centre Contextual Information
Jebraeil, Nigar, Noureddine, A., Doyle, J., Islam, S. and Bashroush, R. 2017. gUML: Reasoning about Energy at Design Time by Extending UML Deployment Diagrams with Data Centre Contextual Information. in: 2017 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). pp. In Press
Cloud Strife: Expanding the Horizons of Cloud Gaming Services
Doyle, J., Islam, S., Bashroush, R. and O'Mahony, Donal 2017. Cloud Strife: Expanding the Horizons of Cloud Gaming Services. in: 2017 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Integration operators for generating RDF/OWL-based user defined mediator views in a grid environment
Tawil, Abdel-Rahman H., Taweel, Adel, Naeem, U., Montebello, Matthew, Bashroush, R. and Al-Nemrat, A. 2014. Integration operators for generating RDF/OWL-based user defined mediator views in a grid environment. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems. 43 (1), pp. 1-32.
Jolinar: Analysing the Energy Footprint of Software Applications (demo)
Noureddine, A., Islam, S. and Bashroush, R. 2016. Jolinar: Analysing the Energy Footprint of Software Applications (demo). in: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis New York, NY, USA ACM. pp. 445-448
CASE Tool support for variability management in software product lines
Bashroush, R., Garba, Muhammad, Rabiser, Rick, Groher, Iris and Botterweck, Goetz 2017. CASE Tool support for variability management in software product lines. ACM Computing Surveys. 50 (1), p. Art. 14.
Recurrent lateral inhibitory spiking networks for speech enhancement
Wall, J., Glackin, Cornelius, Cannings, Nigel, Chollet, Gerard and Dugan, Nazim 2016. Recurrent lateral inhibitory spiking networks for speech enhancement. in: Proceedings of 2016 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) IEEE. pp. 1023-1028
Spiking neuron models of the medial and lateral superior olive for sound localisation
Wall, J., McDaid, L.J., Maguire, L.P. and McGinnity, T.M. 2008. Spiking neuron models of the medial and lateral superior olive for sound localisation. IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) (IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence). Hong Kong 01 - 08 Jun 2008 Hong Kong IEEE. pp. 2641-2647 doi:10.1109/IJCNN.2008.4634168
A comparison of sound localisation techniques using cross-correlation and spiking neural networks for mobile robotics
Wall, J., McGinnity, Thomas M. and Maguire, Liam P. 2011. A comparison of sound localisation techniques using cross-correlation and spiking neural networks for mobile robotics. Neural Networks (IJCNN), The 2011 International Joint Conference on. San Jose, CA 31 Jul - 05 Aug 2011 IEEE. pp. 1981-1987
Deep Laterally Recurrent Spiking Neural Networks for Speech Enhancement
Wall, J. 2016. Deep Laterally Recurrent Spiking Neural Networks for Speech Enhancement. UEL Computing & Engineering Showcase. London, UK 16 Jun 2016 UEL.
A spiking neural network implementation of sound localisation
Wall, J., McDaid, L.J., Maguire, L.P. and McGinnity, T.M. 2007. A spiking neural network implementation of sound localisation. IET Irish Signals and Systems. Derry, UK 13 - 14 Sep 2007 Derry, UK pp. 1-5
Using the interaural time difference and cross-correlation to localise short-term complex noises
Wall, J., McGinnity, Martin and Maguire, Liam 2011. Using the interaural time difference and cross-correlation to localise short-term complex noises. Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science (AICS). Derry, UK 31 Aug - 02 Sep 2011 University of Ulster, Intelligent Systems Research Centre.
A Framework for Realistic 3D Tele-Immersion
Fechteler, P., Hilsmann, A., Eisert, P., Broeck, S.V., Stevens, C., Wall, J., Sanna, M., Mauro, D.A., Kuijk, F., Mekuria, R., Cesar, P., Monaghan, D., O'Connor, N.E., Daras, P., Alexiadis, D. and Zahariadis, T. 2013. A Framework for Realistic 3D Tele-Immersion. 6th International Conference on Computer Vision / Computer Graphics Collaboration Techniques and Applications. Berlin, Germany 2013 New York, NY, USA ACM. pp. 1-8 doi:10.1145/2466715.2466718
MUSA: A Scalable Multi-Touch and Multi-Perspective Variability Management Tool
Garba, Muhammad, Noureddine, Adel and Bashroush, R. 2016. MUSA: A Scalable Multi-Touch and Multi-Perspective Variability Management Tool. in: 2016 13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (WICSA) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). pp. 299-302
Spiking Neural Network Connectivity and its Potential for Temporal Sensory Processing and Variable Binding
Wall, J. and Glackin, Cornelius 2013. Spiking Neural Network Connectivity and its Potential for Temporal Sensory Processing and Variable Binding. Frontiers Media SA.
Economic Valuation for Information Security Investment: A Systematic Literature Review
Schatz, Daniel and Bashroush, R. 2016. Economic Valuation for Information Security Investment: A Systematic Literature Review. Information Systems Frontiers. 19 (5), pp. 1205-1228.
Post-Cochlear Auditory Modelling for Sound Localisation using Bio-Inspired Techniques
Wall, J. 2010. Post-Cochlear Auditory Modelling for Sound Localisation using Bio-Inspired Techniques. PhD Thesis University of Ulster Faculty of Computing and Engineering
Fuzzy Ensembles for Embedding Adaptive Behaviours in Semi-Autonomous Avatars in 3D Virtual Worlds
Wall, J., Izquierdo, E. and Zhang, Q. 2013. Fuzzy Ensembles for Embedding Adaptive Behaviours in Semi-Autonomous Avatars in 3D Virtual Worlds. in: Proceedings 2013 18th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP) IEEE. pp. 1-6
Advancements and Challenges towards a Collaborative Framework for 3D Tele-Immersive Social Networking
Mauro, D.A., O'Connor, N.E., Monaghan, D., Gowing, M., Fechteler, P., Eisert, P., Wall, J., Izquierdo, E., Alexiadis, D.S., Daras, P., Mekuria, R. and Cesar, P. 2013. Advancements and Challenges towards a Collaborative Framework for 3D Tele-Immersive Social Networking. 4th IEEE International Workshop on Hot Topics in 3D (Hot3D). San Jose, CA, USA 15 Jul 2013 IEEE. pp. 1-2
A Framework for Human-like Behavior in an Immersive Virtual World
Kuijk, Fons, Van Broeck, Sigurd, Dareau, Claude, Ravenet, Brian, Ochs, Magalie, Apostolakis, Konstantinos, Daras, Petros, Monaghan, David, O'Connor, Noel E, Wall, J. and Izquierdo, Ebroul 2013. A Framework for Human-like Behavior in an Immersive Virtual World. in: Proceedings of 2013 18th International Conference on Digital Signal Processing (DSP) IEEE. pp. 1-7
Modelling large-scale information systems using ADLs – An industrial experience report
Woods, Eoin and Bashroush, R. 2014. Modelling large-scale information systems using ADLs – An industrial experience report. The Journal of Systems and Software. 99 (1), pp. 97-108.
REVERIE: Natural Human Interaction in Virtual Immersive Environments
Wall, J., Izquierdo, Ebroul, Argyriou, Lemonia, Monaghan, David S., O'Connor, Noel E., Poulakos, Steven, Smolic, Aljoscha and Mekuria, Rufael 2014. REVERIE: Natural Human Interaction in Virtual Immersive Environments. in: 2014 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) IEEE. pp. 2165-2167
A Methodological Approach to User Evaluation and Assessment of a Virtual Environment Hangout
Pasin, Marco, Frisiello, Antonella, Wall, J., Poulakos, Steven and Smolic, Aljoscha 2015. A Methodological Approach to User Evaluation and Assessment of a Virtual Environment Hangout. in: Sanna, Andrea, Lamberti, Fabrizio, Rokne, Jon and Gatteschi, Valentina (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Technologies for Interactive Entertainment EAI. pp. 1-5
Playing immersive games on the REVERIE platform
Doumanis, Ioannis, Wall, J. and Monaghan, David S. 2015. Playing immersive games on the REVERIE platform. in: Computer and Information Technology; Ubiquitous Computing and Communications; Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing; Pervasive Intelligence and Computing (CIT/IUCC/DASC/PICOM) IEEE. pp. 1572-1577
The Impact Of Repeated Data Breach Events On Organisations’ Market Value
Schatz, Daniel and Bashroush, R. 2016. The Impact Of Repeated Data Breach Events On Organisations’ Market Value. Information and Computer Security. 24 (1), pp. 73-92.
Spiking neural network model of sound localisation using the interaural intensity difference
Wall, J., McDaid, Liam J., Maguire, Liam P. and McGinnity, Thomas M. 2012. Spiking neural network model of sound localisation using the interaural intensity difference. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks. 23 (4), pp. 574-586.
Activities of daily life recognition using process representation modelling to support intention analysis
Naeem, U., Bashroush, R., Anthony, Richard, Azam, Muhammad Awais, Tawil, Abdel Rahman, Lee, S. and Mou-Ling, Dennis 2015. Activities of daily life recognition using process representation modelling to support intention analysis. International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications. 11 (3), pp. 347-371.
Perception-based Modelling of System Behaviour
Wall, J. 2006. Perception-based Modelling of System Behaviour. Proc. of the IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics Society.
A Spiking Neural Network Model of the Medial Superior Olive using Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity for Sound Localisation
Glackin, B., Wall, J., McGinnity, T.M., Maguire, L.P. and McDaid, L.J. 2010. A Spiking Neural Network Model of the Medial Superior Olive using Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity for Sound Localisation. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience. 4 (18), pp. 1-16.
Spiking neural network connectivity and its potential for temporal sensory processing and variable binding
Wall, J. and Glackin, Cornelius 2013. Spiking neural network connectivity and its potential for temporal sensory processing and variable binding. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience. 7 (182), pp. 1-2.
Using an Architecture Description Language to Model a Large- Scale Information System – An Industrial Experience Report
Woods, Eoin and Bashroush, R. 2012. Using an Architecture Description Language to Model a Large- Scale Information System – An Industrial Experience Report. Proceedings of the Joint 10th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture & 6th European Conference on Software Architecture. Helsinki Finland Aug 2012
The contribution of architecture description languages to the evaluation of software architectures
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2004. The contribution of architecture description languages to the evaluation of software architectures.
Using the NaSr Architectural Style to Solve the Broken Hyperlink Problem
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2004. Using the NaSr Architectural Style to Solve the Broken Hyperlink Problem.
Towards an Automated Evaluation Process for Software Architectures
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2004. Towards an Automated Evaluation Process for Software Architectures.
A Real-time Network Emulator: ADLARS Case Study
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2004. A Real-time Network Emulator: ADLARS Case Study.
A Network Architectural Style for Real-time Systems: NaSr
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2004. A Network Architectural Style for Real-time Systems: NaSr.
Deriving Product Architectures from an ADLARS Described Reference Architecture using Leopard
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2004. Deriving Product Architectures from an ADLARS Described Reference Architecture using Leopard.
Feature Guided Architecture Development for Embedded System Families
Brown, John, Bashroush, R., Gillan, Charles, Spence, Ivor and Kilpatrick, Peter 2005. Feature Guided Architecture Development for Embedded System Families.
A Generic Reference Software Architecture for Load Balancing Over Mirrored Web Servers: NaSr Case Study
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2005. A Generic Reference Software Architecture for Load Balancing Over Mirrored Web Servers: NaSr Case Study.
ADLARS: An Architecture Description Language for Software Product Lines
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2005. ADLARS: An Architecture Description Language for Software Product Lines.
Weaving Behaviour into Feature Models for Embedded System Families
Brown, John, Gawley, Rachel, Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Gillan, Charles 2006. Weaving Behaviour into Feature Models for Embedded System Families.
Towards More Flexible Architecture Description Languages for Industrial Applications
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter and Brown, John 2006. Towards More Flexible Architecture Description Languages for Industrial Applications. in:
Towards Performance Related Decision Support for Model Driven Engineering of Enterprise SOA Applications
Fritzsche, M, Gilani, Wasif, Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter, Brown, John and Bashroush, R. 2008. Towards Performance Related Decision Support for Model Driven Engineering of Enterprise SOA Applications. in: Schierferdecker, Ina and Hartman, Alan (ed.) Model Driven Architecture – Foundations and Applications Springer.
A Multiple Views Model for Variability Management in Software Product Lines
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter, Brown, John and Gillan, Charles 2008. A Multiple Views Model for Variability Management in Software Product Lines. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-intensive Systems (VaMoS2008). Essen, Germany 16 - 18 Jan 2008
ALI: An Extensible Architecture Description Language for Industrial Applications
Bashroush, R., Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter, Brown, John, Gilani, Wasif and Fritzsche, M 2008. ALI: An Extensible Architecture Description Language for Industrial Applications. in: Springer.
Towards Performance Related Decision Support for Model Driven Engineering of Enterprise SOA Applications
Bashroush, R. and Spence, Ivor 2008. Towards Performance Related Decision Support for Model Driven Engineering of Enterprise SOA Applications. in: Proceedings of 15th IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Computer-Based Systems (ECBS) IEEE. pp. 57-65
A Scalable Multiple Perspective Variability Management CASE Tool
Bashroush, R. 2010. A Scalable Multiple Perspective Variability Management CASE Tool. 14th International Software Product Line Conference (SPLC). South Korea Sep 2010
A NUI Based Multiple Perspective Variability Modelling CASE Tool
Bashroush, R. 2010. A NUI Based Multiple Perspective Variability Modelling CASE Tool. in: Babar, Muhammad Ali and Gorton, IAn (ed.) Software Architecture: Proceedings of 4th European Conference, ECSA 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 23-26, 2010 Springer.
Logical Reasoning and Decision Making
Ong, D, Khaddaj, Souheil and Bashroush, R. 2011. Logical Reasoning and Decision Making. 10th IEEE International Conference on Cybernetic Intelligent Systems. London Aug 2011
A Provisioning Model towards OAuth 2.0 Optimization
Nouriddine, Moustafa and Bashroush, R. 2011. A Provisioning Model towards OAuth 2.0 Optimization. 10th IEEE International Conference on Cybernetic Intelligent Systems. London Sep 2011
A Performance Optimization Model towards OAuth 2.0 Adoption in the Enterprise
Nouriddine, Moustafa and Bashroush, R. 2011. A Performance Optimization Model towards OAuth 2.0 Adoption in the Enterprise. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Global Security, Safety & Sustainability (ICGS3). Greece Aug 2011
Modality Cost Analysis: A Methodology for Cost Effective Datacenter Capacity Planning in the Cloud
Nouriddine, Moustafa and Bashroush, R. 2011. Modality Cost Analysis: A Methodology for Cost Effective Datacenter Capacity Planning in the Cloud.
Modality Cost Analysis Based Methodology for Cost Effective Datacenter Capacity Planning in the Cloud
Nouriddine, Moustafa and Bashroush, R. 2011. Modality Cost Analysis Based Methodology for Cost Effective Datacenter Capacity Planning in the Cloud. Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal.
Sufficiency of Windows Event log as Evidence in Digital Forensics
Ibrahim, Nurdeen, Al-Nemrat, Ameer, Jahankhani, Hamid and Bashroush, R. 2011. Sufficiency of Windows Event log as Evidence in Digital Forensics. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Global Security, Safety & Sustainability (ICGS3). Greece Aug 2011
GSi Compliant RAS for Public Private Sector Partnership
Fawzi, Fawzi and Bashroush, R. 2011. GSi Compliant RAS for Public Private Sector Partnership. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Global Security, Safety & Sustainability (ICGS3). Greece Aug 2011
Case Study: Using ADLARS to Design and Develop a Real-Time Network Emulator
Bashroush, R., Al-Nemrat, Ameer, Bachrouch, Mohammad and Spence, Ivor 2011. Case Study: Using ADLARS to Design and Develop a Real-Time Network Emulator. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS 2011). Jordan May 2011
Visualizing Variability Models Using Hyperbolic Trees
Bashroush, R., Al-Nemrat, Ameer, Bachrouch, Mohammad and Jahankhani, Hamid 2011. Visualizing Variability Models Using Hyperbolic Trees. Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering Forum(CAiSE Forum 2011). London Jun 2011
A Cost Effective Cloud Datacenter Capacity Planning Method Based on Modality Cost Analysis
Bashroush, R. and Nouriddine, Moustafa 2013. A Cost Effective Cloud Datacenter Capacity Planning Method Based on Modality Cost Analysis. International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems. 11 (3), pp. 250-261.
Challenges in the Application of Feature Modelling in Fixed Line Telecommunications
Gillan, Charles, Kilpatrick, Peter, Spence, Ivor, Brown, T. John, Bashroush, R. and Gawley, Rachel 2007. Challenges in the Application of Feature Modelling in Fixed Line Telecommunications. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-intensive Systems (VaMoS 2007), Lemrick, Ireland, Jan 16 -18, 2007. C Gillan
Using a Software Product Line Approach in Designing Grid Services
Bashroush, R. and Perrott, Ronald 2005. Using a Software Product Line Approach in Designing Grid Services. 4th UK e-Science All Hands Meeting (AHM2005). Nottingham, UK Sep 2005
Requirements Modelling and Design Notations for Software Product Lines
Brown, T. John, Gawley, Rachel, Spence, Ivor, Kilpatrick, Peter, Gillan, Charles and Bashroush, R. 2007. Requirements Modelling and Design Notations for Software Product Lines. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-intensive Systems (VaMoS2007), Lemrick, Ireland, Jan 16-18, 2007. T J. Brown