The surfactant co-formulant POEA in the glyphosate-based herbicide RangerPro but not glyphosate alone causes necrosis in Caco-2 and HepG2 human cell lines and ER stress in the ToxTracker assay

Article


Mesnage, R., Gerguson, S., Brandsma, I., Moelijker, N., Zhang, G., Mazzacuva, F., Caldwell, A., Halket, J. and Antoniou, M. N. 2022. The surfactant co-formulant POEA in the glyphosate-based herbicide RangerPro but not glyphosate alone causes necrosis in Caco-2 and HepG2 human cell lines and ER stress in the ToxTracker assay. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 168 (Art. 113380). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2022.113380
AuthorsMesnage, R., Gerguson, S., Brandsma, I., Moelijker, N., Zhang, G., Mazzacuva, F., Caldwell, A., Halket, J. and Antoniou, M. N.
Abstract

The toxicity of co-formulants present in glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) has been widely discussed leading to the European Union banning the polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA). We identified the most commonly used POEA, known as POE-15 tallow amine (POE-15), in the widely used US GBH RangerPro. Cytotoxicity assays using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 and hepatocyte HepG2 cell lines showed that RangerPro and POE-15 are far more cytotoxic than glyphosate alone. RangerPro and POE-15 but not glyphosate caused cell necrosis in both cell lines, and that glyphosate and RangerPro but not POE-15 caused oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. We further tested these pesticide ingredients in the ToxTracker assay, a system used to evaluate a compound's carcinogenic potential, to assess their capability for inducing DNA damage, oxidative stress and an unfolded protein response (endoplasmic reticulum, ER stress). RangerPro and POE-15 but not glyphosate gave rise to ER stress. We conclude that the toxicity resulting from RangerPro exposure is thus multifactorial involving ER stress caused by POE-15 along with oxidative stress caused by glyphosate. Our observations reinforce the need to test both co-formulants and active ingredients of commercial pesticides to inform the enactment of more appropriate regulation and thus better public and environmental protection.

JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Journal citation168 (Art. 113380)
ISSN0278-6915
Year2022
PublisherElsevier
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Anyone
Supplemental file
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Digital Object Identifier (DOI)https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2022.113380
Publication dates
Online24 Aug 2022
Print05 Sep 2022
Publication process dates
Accepted15 Aug 2022
Deposited22 Feb 2024
FunderSustainable Food Alliance (USA)
Copyright holder© 2022, The Authors
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