The categorical structure of knowledge for famous people (and a novel application of centre–surround theory)

Article


Stone, A. and Valentine, Tim 2007. The categorical structure of knowledge for famous people (and a novel application of centre–surround theory). Cognition. 104 (3), pp. 535-564.
AuthorsStone, A. and Valentine, Tim
Abstract

Knowledge of familiar people is essential to guide social interaction, yet there is uncertainty about whether semantic knowledge for people is stored in a categorical structure as for objects. Four priming experiments using hard-to-perceive primes investigated whether occupation forms a category connecting famous persons in semantic memory. Primes were famous faces exposed for 17 ms with masking, resulting in severely restricted awareness and thus precluding expectancy-based priming effects. Targets were consciously perceptible famous faces (Experiments 1–3), famous names (Experiment 3), or occupations (Experiment 4) representing either the same or different occupation to the prime. Significant priming demonstrated the operation of automatic processes, including spreading activation, among persons sharing a common occupation; this supports the categorical view. The direction of priming (faster/slower responses to same-occupation than different-occupation targets) was dependent on prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (Experiments 1–3) and type of target (Experiment 4). This pattern of results is attributed to the Centre-Surround mechanism proposed by Carr and Dagenbach [Carr, T. H., & Dagenbach, D. (1990). Semantic priming and repetition priming from masked words: evidence for a centre-surround attentional mechanism in perceptual recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 16, 341–350]. These results support (a) the categorical structure of semantic knowledge for famous people and (b) the application of the Centre-Surround mechanism to the domain of person recognition.

KeywordsPerson recognition; Severely restricted awareness; Categorical priming; Occupation; Centre-Surround theory; Priming; Experimental; Face
JournalCognition
Journal citation104 (3), pp. 535-564
ISSN0010-0277
Year2007
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY-ND
Web address (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2006.07.014
http://hdl.handle.net/10552/1076
Publication dates
PrintSep 2007
Publication process dates
Deposited30 Nov 2010
Additional information

Citation:
Stone, A., & Valentine, T. (2007) ‘The categorical structure of knowledge for famous people (and a novel application of centre-surround theory)' Cognition 104 (3) pp. 535-564.

Permalink -

https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/86619

  • 13
    total views
  • 70
    total downloads
  • 2
    views this month
  • 6
    downloads this month

Related outputs

Development and validation of the multi-dimensional questionnaire of scientifically unsubstantiated beliefs
Stone, A., Mcdermott, M., Abdi, Aishi, Cornwell, Brittanie, Matyas, Zsofia, Reed, Ruby and Watt, Rebecca 2018. Development and validation of the multi-dimensional questionnaire of scientifically unsubstantiated beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences. 128, pp. 146-156.
Emotional responses to disfigured faces and Disgust Sensitivity: An eye-tracking study
Stone, A. and Potton, Anita 2017. Emotional responses to disfigured faces and Disgust Sensitivity: An eye-tracking study. Journal of Health Psychology. 24 (9), pp. 1191-1200.
Rational Thinking and Belief in Psychic Abilities: It Depends on Level of Involvement
Stone, A. 2016. Rational Thinking and Belief in Psychic Abilities: It Depends on Level of Involvement. Psychological Reports. 118 (1), pp. 74-89.
Emotional Responses to Disfigured Faces: The Influences of Perceived Anonymity, Empathy, and Disgust Sensitivity
Stone, A. and Potton, Anita 2014. Emotional Responses to Disfigured Faces: The Influences of Perceived Anonymity, Empathy, and Disgust Sensitivity. Basic and Applied Social Psychology. 36 (6), pp. 520-532.
A study aimed to investigate the recruitment prospects of people with facial disfigurement and a contrasting group of wheelchair users
Stone, A. 2013. A study aimed to investigate the recruitment prospects of people with facial disfigurement and a contrasting group of wheelchair users. UEL Research and Knowledge Exchange Conference 2013. University of East London, London 26 Jun 2013 London University of East London.
When your face doesn't fit: employment discrimination against people with facial disfigurements
Stone, A. and Wright, Toby 2013. When your face doesn't fit: employment discrimination against people with facial disfigurements. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 43 (3), pp. 515-526.
An avowal of prior scepticism enhances the credibility of an account of a paranormal event
Stone, A. 2013. An avowal of prior scepticism enhances the credibility of an account of a paranormal event. Journal of Language and Social Psychology. 33 (3), pp. 260-281.
Face recognition and emotional valence: Processing without awareness by neurologically intact participants does not simulate covert recognition in prosopagnosia
Stone, A., Valentine, Tim and Davis, Rob 2001. Face recognition and emotional valence: Processing without awareness by neurologically intact participants does not simulate covert recognition in prosopagnosia. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience. 1 (2), pp. 183-191.
Accuracy of familiarity decisions to famous faces perceived without awareness depends on attitude to the target person and on response latency
Stone, A. and Valentine, Tim 2005. Accuracy of familiarity decisions to famous faces perceived without awareness depends on attitude to the target person and on response latency. Consciousness and Cognition. 14 (2), pp. 351-376.
Strength of visual percept generated by famous faces perceived without awareness: effects of affective valence, response latency, and visual field
Stone, A. and Valentine, Tim 2005. Strength of visual percept generated by famous faces perceived without awareness: effects of affective valence, response latency, and visual field. Consciousness and Cognition. 14 (3), pp. 548-564.
Attentional effects of masked famous faces (but not names) and subjective evaluations of a target person
Stone, A. 2011. Attentional effects of masked famous faces (but not names) and subjective evaluations of a target person. Perceptual & Motor Skills. 112 (2), pp. 451-476.
Centre–surround inhibition is a general aspect of famous-person recognition: evidence from negative semantic priming from clearly visible primes
Stone, A. 2011. Centre–surround inhibition is a general aspect of famous-person recognition: evidence from negative semantic priming from clearly visible primes. Memory and Cognition.
Angry and happy faces perceived without awareness: a comparison with the affective impact of masked famous faces
Stone, A. and Valentine, Tim 2007. Angry and happy faces perceived without awareness: a comparison with the affective impact of masked famous faces. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology. 19 (2), pp. 161-186.
Categorical priming of famous person recognition: a hitherto overlooked methodological factor can resolve a long-standing debate
Stone, A. 2008. Categorical priming of famous person recognition: a hitherto overlooked methodological factor can resolve a long-standing debate. Cognition. 108 (3), pp. 874-880.
Better the devil you know? Non-conscious processing of identity and affect of famous faces
Stone, A. and Valentine, Tim 2004. Better the devil you know? Non-conscious processing of identity and affect of famous faces. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review. 11 (3), pp. 469-474.
Viewpoint: Perspectives on prosopagnosia and models of face recognition
Stone, A. and Valentine, Tim 2003. Viewpoint: Perspectives on prosopagnosia and models of face recognition. Cortex. 39 (1), pp. 31-40.