School Age Neurological and Cognitive Outcomes of Fetal Growth Retardation or Small for Gestational Age Birth Weight

Article


Vollmer, Brigitte and Edmonds, C. 2019. School Age Neurological and Cognitive Outcomes of Fetal Growth Retardation or Small for Gestational Age Birth Weight. Frontiers in Endocrinology. 10, p. Art. 186.
AuthorsVollmer, Brigitte and Edmonds, C.
Abstract

Children who were growth restricted in utero (FGR) and are born small for gestational age (SGA) may experience poorer long term neurological and cognitive outcomes. Those also born preterm may have particular difficulties. The objective of this paper was to review the literature on school age neurocognitive outcome for term and preterm children that was published in the last fifteen years. Considering term born children first, there is evidence that these children are at higher risk for Cerebral Palsy (CP) than those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA); information on neuromotor function in the absence of CP is somewhat contradictory. With regards to cognitive outcome, the most common finding was that being born SGA and/or FGR at term does not impact negatively on general intellectual functioning, commonly assessed by IQ scores. There was some indication that they may experience particular problems with attention. With regards to children born preterm, the risk of CP appears not to be increased compared to those preterms born AGA. For preterm children who do not develop CP, motor outcome is more affected by post-natal and post-neonatal brain growth than intrauterine growth. In contrast to term born children, preterm SGA and/or FGR children are at increased risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties, and in common with term born children, are at higher risk than their AGA counterparts of difficulties with attentional control. In conclusion, preterm born SGA and/or FGR children are at higher risk of neurodevelopmental problems in the school years. It is important to continue to follow up children into the school age years because these difficulties may take time to emerge, and may be more visible in the more demanding school environment.

JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
Journal citation10, p. Art. 186
ISSN1664-2392
Year2019
PublisherFrontiers Media
Publisher's version
License
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00186
Web address (URL)https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00186
Publication dates
Print28 Mar 2019
Publication process dates
Deposited28 Mar 2019
Accepted06 Mar 2019
Accepted06 Mar 2019
Copyright information© The authors
LicenseCC BY 4.0
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https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/84421

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