Thinking dispositions and cognitive reflection performance in schizotypy

Article


Broyd, Annabel, Ettinger, Ulrich and Thoma, V. 2019. Thinking dispositions and cognitive reflection performance in schizotypy. Judgment and Decision Making. 14 (1), pp. 80-90.
AuthorsBroyd, Annabel, Ettinger, Ulrich and Thoma, V.
Abstract

Schizotypy refers to the continuum of normal variability of psychosis-like characteristics and experiences, often classified as positive schizotypy (‘unusual experiences’; UE) and negative schizotypy (‘introvertive anhedonia’; IA). Here, we investigated the link between schizotypy and cognitive processing style and performance. A particular focus was on whether schizotypy is associated more with Type 1 (automatic/heuristic) than Type 2 (reflective/effortful) processes, as may be expected from findings of impaired top-down control in schizophrenia. A large sample (n = 1,512) completed online measures pertaining to schizotypy (Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences; O-LIFE), thinking style (Rational Experiential Inventory-10, Actively Open-Minded Thinking Scale), and reasoning performance (Cognitive Reflection Test). Higher positive (UE) and negative (IA) schizotypy were associated with more pronounced Type 1 processing, i.e. greater self-reported Faith in Intuition (FI), lower Need for Cognition (NFC), lower Actively Open-Minded Thinking (AOT), and lower cognitive reflection test (CRT) scores. Canonical correlation analysis confirmed a significant association between UE and increased FI, lower AOT and lower CRT performance, accounting for 12.38% of the shared variance between schizotypy and thinking dispositions. IA was more highly associated with reduced NFC. These findings suggest that schizotypy may be associated with similar thinking dispositions to those reported in psychosis, with different patterns of associations for positive and negative schizotypy. This result informs research on reasoning processes in psychosis and has clinical implications, including potential treatment targets and refinements for cognitive therapies.

JournalJudgment and Decision Making
Journal citation14 (1), pp. 80-90
ISSN1930-2975
Year2019
PublisherSociety for Judgment and Decision Making & European Association for Decision Making
Publisher's version
License
Web address (URL)http://journal.sjdm.org/18/181114/jdm181114.html
Publication dates
OnlineJan 2019
Publication process dates
Deposited21 Feb 2019
Accepted19 Dec 2018
Accepted19 Dec 2018
Copyright information© 2019 The authors
LicenseCC BY 3.0
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https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/8451w

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