A very gradual suppression: A history of Turkish opium controls, 1933-1974

Article


Windle, J. 2014. A very gradual suppression: A history of Turkish opium controls, 1933-1974. European Journal of Criminology. 11 (2), pp. 195-212.
AuthorsWindle, J.
Abstract

Before 1974 controls over Turkey's opium production were ineffective and provided opportunities for
large-scale diversion, making it one of the world's largest sources of illicit opium. The state monopoly
was limited by a lack of authority over opium producing areas, laissez faire controls and poor state
procurement practices. Policies administered between 1933 and 1971 did, however, represent a period
of organisational learning which led to the establishment of a highly successful drug control policy. A
secondary finding of this paper, revealed whilst analysing diversion estimates, suggests that there may
be inaccuracies in assumptions of geographical displacement from Turkey. While these assumptions
have been reproduced in much of the literature, the data suggests that the Turkish opium ban of 1971
had either minimal impact on global, or regional production levels, or that displacement occurred
during the 1960s rather than the mid-1970.

JournalEuropean Journal of Criminology
Journal citation11 (2), pp. 195-212
ISSN1741-2609
1477-3708
Year2014
PublisherSAGE Publications
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY
Web address (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1477370813494818
Publication dates
Print19 Feb 2014
Publication process dates
Deposited15 Jul 2015
Accepted22 Jul 2013
Copyright information© 2014 The author
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