Ominous Parallels and Optimistic Differences: Opium in China and Afghanistan

Article


Windle, J. 2011. Ominous Parallels and Optimistic Differences: Opium in China and Afghanistan. Law, Crime and History. 1 (2), pp. 141-164.
AuthorsWindle, J.
Abstract

This paper compares two of history's largest producers of opium - Afghanistan (2000-11) and China (1917-35) - to suggest that in both cases production was facilitated by: (1) A lack of central control over the national territory; (2) The existence of local power-holders; (3) Internal violent conflict; (4) The existence of a significant domestic opium consuming population.

The initial analysis is extended by introducing a successful opium production suppression intervention, The People's Republic of China (1950s/1960s), to suggest that the control of opium in contemporary Afghanistan requires the Government to: (1) Extend the state into isolated and hostile areas; (2) Facilitate a sense of self-interest in the Afghan Government and political elite towards opium suppression; (3) Facilitate a perception that suppression benefits opium farmers; (4) Strengthen the capacity to monitor opium farmers and enforce the law.

KeywordsOpium; China; Afghanistan; Drug law enforcement; Alternative development
JournalLaw, Crime and History
Journal citation1 (2), pp. 141-164
Year2011
Publisher's version
Web address (URL)http://www.pbs.plymouth.ac.uk/solon/journal.htm
Publication dates
Print2011
Publication process dates
Deposited05 Nov 2012
Copyright informationCopyright in all contributions accepted for publication will remain with the authors who are free to re-use their own material.
Permalink -

https://repository.uel.ac.uk/item/86196

Download files

  • 251
    total views
  • 81
    total downloads
  • 4
    views this month
  • 1
    downloads this month

Export as

Related outputs

Security trumps drug control: How securitization explains drug policy paradoxes in Thailand and Vietnam
Windle, J. 2016. Security trumps drug control: How securitization explains drug policy paradoxes in Thailand and Vietnam. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy. 23 (4), pp. 344-354. https://doi.org/10.3109/09687637.2016.1140720
Tuckers firm: a case study of British organised crime
Windle, J. 2013. Tuckers firm: a case study of British organised crime. Trends in Organized Crime. 16 (4), pp. 382-396.
How the East Influenced Drug Prohibition
Windle, J. 2013. How the East Influenced Drug Prohibition. The International History Review. 35 (5), pp. 1185-1199.
A Slow March from Social Evil to Harm Reduction: Drugs and Drug Policy in Vietnam
Windle, J. 2015. A Slow March from Social Evil to Harm Reduction: Drugs and Drug Policy in Vietnam. Journal of Drug Policy Analysis. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1515/jdpa-2015-0011
Preventing the diversion of Turkish opium
Windle, J. 2016. Preventing the diversion of Turkish opium. Security Journal. 29 (2), pp. 213-227. https://doi.org/10.1057/sj.2013.8
‘It’s like working away for two weeks’: The harms associated with young drug dealers commuting from a saturated London drug market
Windle, J. and Briggs, Daniel 2015. ‘It’s like working away for two weeks’: The harms associated with young drug dealers commuting from a saturated London drug market. Crime Prevention and Community Safety. 17 (2), pp. 105-119.
Popping the Balloon Effect: Assessing Drug Law Enforcement in Terms of Displacement, Diffusion, and the Containment Hypothesis
Windle, J. and Farrell, Graham 2012. Popping the Balloon Effect: Assessing Drug Law Enforcement in Terms of Displacement, Diffusion, and the Containment Hypothesis. Substance Use & Misuse. 47 (8-9), pp. 868-876.
The suppression of illicit opium production in Viet Nam: an introductory narrative
Windle, J. 2012. The suppression of illicit opium production in Viet Nam: an introductory narrative. Crime, Law and Social Change. 57 (4), pp. 425-439.
Harms caused by China's 1906–17 opium suppression intervention
Windle, J. 2013. Harms caused by China's 1906–17 opium suppression intervention. International Journal of Drug Policy. 24 (5), pp. 498-505.
A very gradual suppression: A history of Turkish opium controls, 1933-1974
Windle, J. 2014. A very gradual suppression: A history of Turkish opium controls, 1933-1974. European Journal of Criminology. 11 (2), pp. 195-212.
Going solo: the social organisation of drug dealing within a London street gang
Windle, J. and Briggs, Daniel 2015. Going solo: the social organisation of drug dealing within a London street gang. Journal of Youth Studies. 18 (9), pp. 1170-1185.
Poppies for Medicine in Afghanistan: Lessons from India and Turkey
Windle, J. 2011. Poppies for Medicine in Afghanistan: Lessons from India and Turkey. Journal of Asian and African Studies. 46 (6), pp. 663-677.
Insights for Contemporary Drug Policy: A Historical Account of Opium Control in India and Pakistan
Windle, J. 2012. Insights for Contemporary Drug Policy: A Historical Account of Opium Control in India and Pakistan. Asian Journal of Criminology. 7 (1), pp. 55-74.
Afghanistan, Narcotics and the International Criminal Court: From Port of Spain to Kabul, via Rome.
Windle, J. 2012. Afghanistan, Narcotics and the International Criminal Court: From Port of Spain to Kabul, via Rome. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice. 20 (3), pp. 297-314.