Insights for Contemporary Drug Policy: A Historical Account of Opium Control in India and Pakistan

Article


Windle, J. 2012. Insights for Contemporary Drug Policy: A Historical Account of Opium Control in India and Pakistan. Asian Journal of Criminology. 7 (1), pp. 55-74.
AuthorsWindle, J.
Abstract

Opium, as a tradable commodity, has a long history in the Indian sub-continent. This article offers a history of the production and distribution of both licit and illicit opium from 1773 to the present day in order to explore the lessons that Indian and Pakistani experiences can offer to contemporary drug policy. Four insights for contemporary drug control policy are developed from the historical analysis: (1) Post-independence Pakistan and India illustrate the difficulties of controlling a regulated, licit, opium industry; (2) The relationship between Chinese and Indian opium production and exports may suggest that competition can be an effective impetus to production suppression; (3) Developmental approaches to reducing production can limit the damages caused by opium suppression; (4) Effective suppression requires alterations to institutional and structural conditions which facilitate production (i.e. reducing violent conflict, improving civil and criminal justice institutions efficiency or extending transport infrastructures).

KeywordsOpium; Heroin; Alternative development; Diversion; India; Pakistan
JournalAsian Journal of Criminology
Journal citation7 (1), pp. 55-74
ISSN1871-0131
1871-014X
Year2012
PublisherSpringer
Accepted author manuscript
License
CC BY-ND
Web address (URL)http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11417-011-9104-0
Publication dates
Print2012
Publication process dates
Deposited27 Jan 2014
Copyright informationThe final publication is available at link.springer.com
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