Triterpenoid saponins from a cytotoxic root extract of Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp. gaumeri

Article


Sanchez-Medina, A., Stevenson, P., Habtemariam, S., Peña-Rodríguez, L. M., Corcoran, O., Mallet, A. L. and Veitch, N. C. 2009. Triterpenoid saponins from a cytotoxic root extract of Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp. gaumeri. Phytochemistry. 70 (6), pp. 765-772.
AuthorsSanchez-Medina, A., Stevenson, P., Habtemariam, S., Peña-Rodríguez, L. M., Corcoran, O., Mallet, A. L. and Veitch, N. C.
Abstract

Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of an ethanolic root extract of Sideroxylon foetidissimum subsp. gaumeri (Sapotaceae) revealed activity against the murine macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7. Systematic bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract gave an active saponin-containing fraction from which four saponins were isolated. Use of 1D (¹H, ¹³C, DEPT135) and 2D (COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC) NMR, mass spectrometry and sugar analysis gave their structures as 3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-28-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-16α-hydroxyprotobassic acid, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-16α-hydroxyprotobassic acid, 3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-28-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)[β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 3)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-16α-hydroxyprotobassic acid, and the known compound, 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-protobassic acid. Two further saponins were obtained from the same fraction, but as a 5:4 mixture comprising 3-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-28-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)[β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 3)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-16α-hydroxyprotobassic acid and 3-O-(β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-28-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)]-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl)-16α-hydroxyprotobassic acid, respectively. This showed greater cytotoxicity (IC₅₀ = 11.9 ± 1.5 μg/ml) towards RAW 264.7 cells than the original extract (IC₅₀ = 39.5 ± 4.1 μg/ml), and the saponin-containing fraction derived from it (IC₅₀ = 33.7 ± 6.2 μg/ml).

JournalPhytochemistry
Journal citation70 (6), pp. 765-772
ISSN0031-9422
Year2009
PublisherElsevier
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.03.014
Publication dates
Online22 Apr 2009
Copyright holder© 2009 Elsevier
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